Justice relates to the determination of the right thing based on the common sense and the facts and evidence available. In the present world, the administration of justice assumes more importance owing to the competitions and complexities arising from the development and civilization. It is found even among the Gods. There are so many incidents to quote from the scriptures. Hinduism has produced many manuscripts and treatises on the administration of justice. Arthasasthra written by Chanakya of Gupta dynasty and Manusmriti are two popular sources for the righteous dispensation of justice followed in ancient India.
According to the Hindu mythology, Brahma the Creator was put behind the bars by Muruga the younger son of God Shiva , for not knowing the meaning of AUM that is the basis of the Universe (known as the Pranav Mantra in Sanskrit). The same Brahma was cursed by Shiva as “Not to be worshiped by anyone in the world” as punishment for his bluffing during a duel between Vishnu and him. Lord Krishna who made the divine discourse Bhagavad Gita during the Kurushetra battle of Mahabarath fame, was cursed by Gandhari , mother of the Kauravas , to die without any kith and kin to defend him.
There are basically four varieties of justice found in our world as given here below.
Natural Justice : This unique type is found in the Nature we live in. There is no partiality or bias involved in this system. Each and everything, including the humans get the equal opportunities and treatment to live in this world. The one with superior skills and powers stands to succeed. This principle is adopted in any system of fair settlement of disputes. In the disciplinary action of an office, the charge-sheeted person will also get the chance to defend his side by presenting his arguments and evidence. In a Court of law, the accused can engage an attorney for proving his side.
Social justice: Treating all people of the society equally irrespective of their color, caste, region, and religion is the social justice. Nations pursue different welfare measures to benefit the various sections of the public and foster the peace and prosperity. For instance, the refugees of wars and natural calamities receive monetary and other assistance to restore their normal lives. The reservation and preferential treatments in education and employment are done to encourage the underprivileged class to come up. Removal of the restrictions and taboos on the lower castes helps them gain freedom and access to all places and resources of the society.
Economic justice: The removal of the inequalities in the income and asset distribution among the citizens is called economic justice. Nationalization of the enterprises and distribution of the resources like finance, land, infrastructure go a long way in ensuring the economic justice. The availability and cost of inputs certainly impact the economic progress of the downtrodden sections. Subsidies, incentives and technical guidance are provided to encourage the indigent but skilled people to take up business activities.
Political justice: The denial of rights and opportunities to the people in choosing the prospects and future takes away the political justice. Devolution of powers to elect and govern a territory facilitates the growth of political justice. Several nations earned their independence when the erstwhile rulers failed to uphold the values of freedom and civil rights of the native people. Even the arrogant kings faced the tune of time to be dethroned by the uprise of civilians.
All religions seek to promote justice and welfare. Hinduism believes that human beings stand to suffer the ups and downs of life depending on the effects of actions in the previous births. The death and birth recur till the soul gets purified to attain the divine status. This is the justice of the Almighty. One that leads an honest and selfless life is sure to reach the heaven.